A major cause of aging is reduction in the energy-producing components of the cell, resulting in reduced cellular metabolic activity and the accumulation of cellular debris. L-carnitine helps maintain cellular energy metabolism by assisting in the transport of fat through the cell membrane and into the mitochondria within the cell, where fats are oxidized to produce the cellular energy ATP. Acetyl-L-carnitine is the acetylated ester of the amino acid L-carnitine. Acetyl-L-carnitine is an endogenous mitochondrial membrane compound that helps maintain mitochondrial bioenergetics and lowers the increased oxidative stress associated with aging. Acetyl-L-carnitine and L-carnitine are absorbed into the bloodstream efficiently. Both are effective at carrying fatty acids across the membrane into the cell where they are burned as energy and utilized efficiently by the mitochondria. Acetyl-L-carnitine also guards against oxidative damage. Amyloid-beta peptide is a principal component of senile plaques and is thought to be a contributor to the aging process. Acetyl-L-carnitine exerts protective effects against oxidative stress.
Acetyl-L-carnitine arginate is a patented form of carnitine. Cell culture studies show that it can stimulate the growth of neurites, nerves found in the brain. The acetylated form of L-carnitine (acetyl-L-carnitine) facilitates the release and synthesis of acetylcholine by donating its acetyl group to the production of acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter. Acetyl-L-carnitine also enhances the release of dopamine from neurons and helps it bind to dopamine receptors. With the discovery of acetyl-L-carnitine arginate, the benefits of acetyl-L-carnitine can now be greatly augmented.